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Other forms can be based on directional comparison, distance teleprotection schemes or phase comparison protection.
Mohamed 11 Aug 09, The typical data provided on power system plant has been updated and significantly expanded following research that showed its popularity. Motor characteristics must be carefully considered when applying protection; while this may be regarded as stating the obvious, it is emphasised because it applies more to motors than to other items of power system plant.
The core of an electric power system is the generation. The change in protection technology, together with significant changes in Utility, Industrial and Commercial organizations, has resulted in new emphasis on Secondary Systems Engineering.
The large capital investment in such systems and the consequences of major system disruption made the cost of such schemes justifiable. To meet these requirements, high-speed protection systems for transmission and primary distribution circuits that are suitable for use with the automatic reclosure of circuit breakers are under continuous development and are very widely applied.
Other possibilities are the use of series capacitors or direct-connected shunt reactors. One form of ‘Unit Protection’ is also known as ‘Differential Protection’, as the principle is to sense the difference in currents between the incoming and outgoing terminals of the unit being protected.
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This form of communications is known as intertripping. Automation of distribution systems has existed for many years. The first part of the book deals with the fundamentals, basic technology, fault calculations and the models of power system plant, including the transient response and saturation problems that affect instrument transformers.
Hi Edvard Thank you for your posting and this book. The amount of protection applied will be governed by economic considerations, taking into account the value of the machine, and the value of its output to the plant owner. HV overhead lines in forest areas are prone to this type of fault. The intention is to make NPAG the standard reference work in its’ subject area – while still helping the student and young engineer new to the field.
Protection against excess current was naturally the earliest protection system to evolve.
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The protection and control of industrial power supply systems must be given careful attention. Chapter 10 Unit Protection of Feeders The graded overcurrent systems described in Chapter 9, though attractively simple in principle, do not meet all the protection requirements of a power system. This should not be confused with ‘overload’ protection, which normally makes use of relays that operate in a time related in some degree to the thermal capability of the plant to be protected.
The content is copyrighted to EEP and may not be reproduced on other websites. Leave a Comment Click here to cancel reply. Faults of many kinds can occur within this system for which diverse forms of electrical and mechanical protection are required.
Such equipment can both cause and be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
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O Npab 21, The book then provides detailed analysis on the application of protection systems. Edvard Jan 30, New chapters treat topics such as system integrity protection and remedial action schemes, phasor measurements and wide area schemes.
Similarly, a protection relay affected by a disturbance through conduction or radiation from nearby conductors could trip a feeder or substation, causing loss of supply to noag large number of consumers.
There are a wide range of a.
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The protection of such lines is more complicated and requires the basic schemes described in the above chapters to be modified. The testing of protection equipment may be divided into four stages: The topic has become known by the title of Power Quality.
Application difficulties are encountered for two reasons: Even if distance protection is applied to all feeders, the busbar will lie in the second zone of all the distance protections, so a bus fault will be cleared relatively slowly, and the resultant duration of the voltage dip imposed on the rest of the system may not be tolerable.
Mohammad Reza Bayat Jan 04, Permanent faults, such as broken conductors, and faults on underground cable sections, must be located and repaired before the supply can be restored. This results in time-delayed protection due to downstream co-ordination requirements. With the exception of emerging fuel cell and solar-cell technology for power systems, the conversion of the fundamental energy into its electrical equivalent normally requires a ‘prime mover’ to develop mechanical power as an intermediate stage.
The considerations for a transformer protection package vary with the application and importance of the transformer.
The testing of protection equipment schemes presents a number of problems. Recent developments such as privatisation started to focus attention on the cost to the consumer of a loss in supply.
Chapter 07 Relay Technology The last thirty years have seen enormous changes in relay technology. Unlike phase and neutral overcurrent protection, the key advantage of distance protection is that its fault coverage of the protected circuit is virtually independent of source impedance variations.
Edvard Jun 02, The intention is to make NPAG the standard reference work in its’ subject area – while still helping the student and young engineer new to the field.