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Introduction To Segmentation: The microprocessor has 20 bit address pins; these are capable of addressing 1MegaByte memory. Causes all segments to default to DWORD alignmentP enabled assembly of all instructions (see) enabled assembly of instructions . This directive tells the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment. For example ASSUME CS:CODE, tells.

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MODEL- This directive is used for selecting a standard memory model for the assembly language program. This directive is used to group the logical segments named after the directive into one logical group segment. The final executable map of the assembly language program is prepared by the loader at the time of loading into the primary memory for actual execution.

Introduction Digital and Analog Signals Signals carry information and are defined Like Us On FaceBook! Link list 3 Automata Languages and Computation. When EVEN is used the location counter will simply incremented to next address and NOP instruction is inserted in that incremented location. The assembler prepares the relocation and linkages information subroutine, ISR for loader. Another type of hint which helps the assembler to assign a particular constant with a label or initialize particular memory locations or labels with constants is an operator.

Name or labels referred to as external in one module must be declared public with the PUBLIC directive in the module in which they are defined. The assembler directives can be divided into two categories namely the general purpose directives and the special directives.

The microprocessor has 20 bit address pins; these are capable of addressing 1MegaByte memory. DW — Define Word. Newer Post Older Post Home. Each memory model has various limitations depending on the maximum space available for code and data. Offset Of A Label: Engineering in your pocket Download our mobile app and study on-the-go.


Macro Assembler Directives

The low word, H, will be put in memory at a lower address than the high word. They indicate how an operand or section of a program to be processed by the assembler. Asswmbler is because the END directive terminates the entire program.

The ASSUME directive is used to inform the assembler, the names of the logical segments to be assumed for different segments used in the program. Procedure for assembling a program Assembling a program proceeds statement directices statement sequentially.

The ENDP directive is used to indicate the end of a procedure. Assembler Memory models Each model defines the way that a program is stored in the memory system.

Group the Related Segments: EVEN This directive instructs the assembler to increment the location of the counter to the next even address if it is not already in the even address. Based on this information and the information generated by the assembler, the loader generates an executable map of the program and further physically loads it into the memory and transfers control to for execution.

If the ISR in service b The operating system that actually has the control of the memory, which is to be allotted to the program for execution, passes the memory address at which the program is to be loaded for execution and the map of the available memory to the loader.

This directive tells the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment. Not available in MASM. It also finds out codes of the instructions from the instruction machine, code database and the program data.

DD — Define Doubleword This directive is used to define a variable of type doubleword or to reserve storage location of type doubleword in memory. CODE- This assembler directive indicates the beginning of the code segment. These types of hints are given to directjves assembler using some predefined alphabetical strings called assembler directives, which helps the assembler to correctly understand the assembly language program to prepare the codes. It will initialize the 10 bytes with the values 11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99, and 00 when the program is loaded into memory to be run.


A series of words can be read much more quickly if they are at even address.

Without this WORD addition, the segment directves be located on the next available paragraph byte address, which might waste as much as 15 bytes of memory. Mohaimen Himu October 24, at The END directive marks the end of an assembly language program. The EVEN directive updates the location counter to the next even address, directivws the current location counter contents are not even, and assigns the following routine or variable or constant to that address.

Directives Also called as pseudo operations that control the assembly process. This directive is used to form logical groups of segments with similar purpose or type.


It processes the pseudo operands and directives. CODE [name] Directibes name in this format is optional. Assume Logical Segment Name: If the content of the location counter is already even, then the procedure will be assigned with the same address. The label directive can be used to refer to the data segment along with the data type, byte or word.

This directive marks the end of a logical segment.


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