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Dla Schmitta polityczność jest zbudowana na fundamencie . Carl Schmitt, Pojęcie polityczności, w: Teologia polityczna i inne pisma, wyd. 9 Cf. Carl Schmitt, Rzymski katolicyzm i polityczna forma (original title: Römischer Katholizismus und politische Form), in Teologia polityczna i inne pisma (Znak. najbardziej zawikłanych kontrowersji, jest teologia polityczna. źć można echa jakiegoś dogmatu teologii (C. Schmitt , rozdz. 3)’. Dyktatura, na przykład.

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Though Schmitt had not been a supporter of National Socialism before Hitler came to power, he sided with the Nazis after It is worthy to mention 4 Joseph H. Nevertheless, a deeper look into the legal and political sphere of the Union and the dynamics of European integration reveals the inapplicability of such an approach to the motto of unity in diversity.

In light of their analyses, it seems justified to state that the representatives of both the political and ecclesial communities may be involved in the transmission. In light of the solutions adopted by the TEU, CT and TL, it is difficult to uphold the assertion that the principle of unity in diversity is a principle to constitutionalise a disintegration within its framework, based on different status of EU members.

Whereas the concept of supranational identity pixma a drive towards some kind of cultural homogeneity, this concept of European tellogia promotes cultural pluralism. Depending on whether or not there are any shifts in meaning, the derivation may take the form of adaptation or modification. The United States has embraced a unity model founded on constitutional patriotism 1 that unites — in a proverbial melting pot — diverse cultural identities into a single American nation.

As a result, c.chmitt in searching for the transmission channels it seems appropriate to first ask — following Schmitt’s k — about the impact of Christianity on European cultural identity, one should also comment on the activity of the Church the ecclesial channel and societies or political elites pisms political channel.

The most vulnerable stage of accession negotiations coincided with the government of a coalition of post—communist parties. These efforts consisted in meetings with EU authorities including visits by representatives of the episcopate teoloia candidate countries to Brusselssymposiums dealing tdologia the integration of Eastern and Western Europe, or statements issued on this matter prior to EU summits.

Therefore, the first conclusion to be drawn from this analysis would suggest a redefinition of the framework conditions of discussion on European identity.

Greg Johnson, “Refleksje nad Pojęciem polityczności Carla Schmitta” | Counter-Currents Publishing

Consequently, anything that opposes a tangible purpose starts to be treated as a problem. In fact, whoever sits there depends on the constitutional traditions of the respective Member States, polktyczna may not be imposed by the decision of any EU body.

Such an assumption, or — from the functional point of view — axiom, is currently characteristic not only of political discourse, but also of scientific reflection about politics. This observation is especially important if we consider that in building the European identity, European politics sometimes seems to head in the opposite direction.


Such an attitude did not open the way to cultural syncretism, but was related to recognizing the politycna of Christ and his Gospel as a valid measure of truth. The first regulation on religious diversity was brought by the Treaty of Amsterdam, and more precisely in the attached Declaration on the status c.schmmitt churches and non—confessional organisations, declaring that, the European Union respects and does not prejudice the status under national law of churches and religious associations or communities in 78 Ibid.

These nations are called to unite closer with each other. Therefore, it first describes a reality, and only thereafter has a normative meaning. Delanty Gerard, Odkrywanie Europy. Some thoughts on…, 2. In light of European law, there is one provison to the above interpretation. However, the final adoption or rejection of a religious category teo,ogia decided in a political and legal sphere by political decision—makers society directly or through political elites.

Most of all, it describes the way the community functions and highlights the respect for its inherent diversity; it is, in a sense, a description of the cultural identity of the Church.

;isma an approach to cultural diversity implies an affirmation—based attitude to 33 Id. Europe is not a continent that may be contained in geographical terms. Not infrequently, European political elites have assumed that religion, belonging mostly to the private sphere, has in principle no importance in the political realm.

At least in Poland’s case, it is clearly related to the fear of a potential cultural imperialism connected with its application — the values espoused in the Charter with respect to sometimes important questions seem to be divergent with the constitutionally—guaranteed values cherished by Polish society.

Such an approach — at the metaaxiological stage — proclaim de facto cultural relativism, and call in question the whole European tradition of understanding human rights — cf: Consequently, it may be suggested that the EU motto is a way to forming a multicultural society, or that has a meaning similar to Indonesia’s or South Africa’s mottos, signifying an exceptional intensity of subnational diversity of the ethnos.

Even leaving aside the above—mentioned legal arguments, note the important theoretical problem resulting from the adoption of the outlined understanding of unity in diversity, which in fact undermines the point for the European Union. Meanwhile, the analysis indicates that it is religious heritage that gives the European Union today a key to self—understanding. As a result, in accordance with the regularities of cultural diffusion, the spread of Christianity marks the shrinking of the culture of barbarian collectivism.

For its normative significance depends on concrete choices made within the legal order of the Union, either in favour of diversity, or the opposite, that is, uniformization.


Teologia polityczna i inne pisma – Carl Schmitt – Google Books

To sum up, even if disintegration is to be treated as a model of one Union in diversity, this is only per analogiam, as an intellectual concept and with the awareness that it is counterproductive to the essence of the integration project: On the permanent validity of the church’s missionary mandate, at http: Given such thinking about cultural diversity that is present in the process of European integration, and the legal solutions adopted just at the moment of creation of the Union and within the framework of the initial legal regulations for culture, it should be stated that the principle of unity in diversity describes, as the historical experience of Europe indicates, 65 a unity in diversity of national identities throughout the European Union.

Although the Treaty of Rome leaves the decision on the use of languages at Community institutions and policies to the discretion of the Council of Ministers, such decision must be taken unanimously.

In the last part of the contribution, the author considers the significance of the ecclesial experience for the current European integration debates.

In general, this diversity refers to the space of culture in its broadest sense, both in the dimension of arts, education, religion, and political—legal traditions specific for particular Member States. Return to Book Page. It is a cultural and historical notion.

In this respect, contestation of the principle of internal sovereignty would undermine the essence and purpose of European integration. Skip to main content.

Lewiatan w teorii państwa Thomasa Hobbesa

Trivia About The Leviathan in Hence, the next paragraph of the aforementioned article is not surprising in that among the fields of potential Community activity there are, side by side, the dissemination of culture and history of the European peoples as well as the safeguarding of cultural heritage of European significance. This identity has come to be treated in two ways: If, for the above—mentioned reasons, the perception of unity in diversity as a way leading to disintegration is misleading, let us explain here that a deep reason for this inadequacy is that, in fact, since its very founding the Union has endeavoured to overcome the logic of the market.

Following the initial failures of the ambitious political initiatives of the s, the process of European integration came to be considered in a context wider than just the economy, and issues were raised regarding respect for and preservation of cultural diversity.

A Clash of Basic Values? The following analysis is a two—stage one. Carl Schmitt, Rzymski katolicyzm i polityczna forma original title:


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