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It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi.

Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed.

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The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis. Ixodes ricinus ticks and mice can be infected with both Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii.

The effect of coinfection with these two Borrelia species on the development of murine Lyme borreliosis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether coinfection with the. Use of CFSE staining of borreliae in studies on the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Acute borrelial infection of the skin has unusual characteristics with only a mild local inflammatory response suggesting that the interaction between borreliae and the cells of the first-line defence might differ from that of other bacteria. It has been reported that human neutrophils phagocytose motile borreliae through an unconventional mechanism tube phagocytosis which is not observed with non-motile borreliae. Therefore, it would be of great interest to visualise the bacteria by a method not affecting motility and viability of borreliae to be able to study their interaction with the cells of the innate immunity.

Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester CFSE labelling has been previously used for studying the adhesion of labelled bacteria to host cells and the uptake of labelled substrates by various cells using flow cytometry. Use of CFSE staining allowed subsequent quantification of borreliae associated with human neutrophils with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.

As a result, no difference in association between different borrelial genospecies Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, or between borreliae and the pyogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, with neutrophils could be detected.

Borrelial virulence, on the other hand, affected association with neutrophils, with significantly higher association of a non-virulent mutant B. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay using CFSE labelled borreliae is a valuable tool in the analysis of the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils. Human Lyme disease is commonly caused by several species of spirochetes in the Borrelia genus. In Eurasia these species are largely Borrelia afzelii, B.

Whole-genome sequencing is an excellent tool for investigating and understanding the influence of bacterial diversity on the pathogenesis and etiology of Lyme disease. We report here the whole-genome sequences of four isolates from two of the Borrelia species that cause human Lyme disease, B. Species of the genus Borrelia are causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever.

Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. However, in some parts of the world Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel Borrelia genotypes. Herein, we report the presence of a Borrelia sp. Ticks were collected from snakes, identified to species level and examined by PCR for the presence of Borrelia spp.


Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining method. The results of this study suggest for the first time that there is a Borrelia sp.

Two species of the genus BorreliaBorrelia bissettiae sp. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The preferred host of B. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: Enzyme activities of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

EE – Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: Celestino-etsadistica detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. When comparing cDNA and DNA as the type of template the analytical sensitivity was in general higher for the protocols using DNA as template regardless of the use of target gene The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity and probabilidadez of eight different real-time PCR methods at five laboratories in Sweden, Norway and Denmark.

Borrelia infection and risk of celiac disease. Environmental factors, including infectious agents, are speculated to play a role in the rising prevalence and the geographic distribution of celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder.

In the USA and Sweden where the regional variation in the frequency of celiac disease has been studied, a similarity with the geographic distribution of Lyme disease, an emerging multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, has been found, thus raising the possibility of a link.

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We aimed to determine if infection with Borrelia contributes to an increased risk of celiac disease. Biopsy reports from all of Sweden’s pathology departments were used to identify 15, individuals with celiac disease. Through linkage to the nationwide Patient Register, we compared the rate of earlier occurrence of Lyme disease in the patients with celiac disease to that in 78, matched controls. To further assess the temporal relationship between Borrelia infection and celiac disease, we also examined the risk of subsequent Lyme disease in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease.

A modest association between Lyme disease and celiac disease was seen both before odds ratio, 1. Only a minor fraction of the celiac disease patient population had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease. The similar association between Lyme disease and celiac disease both before and after the diagnosis of celiac disease is strongly suggestive of surveillance bias as a likely contributor. Taken together, the data indicate that Borrelia infection is not a substantive risk factor in the development of celiac disease.

Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi Motility and Chemotaxis. Swimming plate, cell motion tracking, and capillary tube assays are very useful tools to quantitatively measure bacterial motility and chemotaxis.

These methods were modified and applied to study Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis. By using these methods, numerous motility and chemotaxis mutants have been characterized and several chemoattractants were identified. Garfia the assistance of these tools, the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of B. In addition, these tools also facilitate the study of motility and chemotaxis in other spirochetes.

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Multispacer sequence typing relapsing fever Borreliae in Africa. In Africa, relapsing fevers are neglected arthropod-borne infections caused by closely related Borrelia species. They cause mild to deadly undifferentiated fever particularly severe in pregnant women. Lack of a tool to genotype these Borrelia organisms limits knowledge regarding their reservoirs and their epidemiology. Genome sequence analysis of Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii and Borrelia recurrentis yielded 5 intergenic spacers scattered between 10 chromosomal genes that were incorporated into a multispacer sequence typing MST approach.


Sequencing these spacers directly from human blood specimens previously found to be infected by B. Phylogenetic analyses of MST data suggested that B. MST proved to be a suitable approach for identifying and genotyping relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. It could be applied to both vectors and clinical specimens. Borrelia infection and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Reports of the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in malignant lymphomas have raised the hypothesis that infection with B.

However, in analyses of NHL subtypes, self-reported history of B. Notably, this specific association was also observed in persons who did Our observations suggest a previously unreported association between B. Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents.

The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms.

Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known f Does RecA have a role in Borrelia recurrentis? Genomic sequencing of two relapsing fever spirochaetes showed truncation of recA in Borrelia recurrentis, but not in Borrelia duttonii. RecA has an important role among bacteria; we investigated whether this characteristic was representative of B.

We sequenced recA directly from samples of patient with louse-borne relapsing fever B. We confirmed the premature stop codon in se Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro. Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen.

In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance EPS matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques.

The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure.

Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro.

Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells. Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and their reflection on immune response. EC – Immunology Impact factor: Evidence for frequent OspC gene transfer between Borrelia valaisiana sp. Molecular polymorphism of the ospC gene has been reported in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii, the spirochetes causing human Lyme borreliosis. To assess the genetic relationship between ospC genes from the recently described Borrelia valaisiana sp.

Genome-Wide Mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi.


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