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Ionescu, Ghiţă. Since the s, Communism in Romania, – has been the classic monograph on the “Ghiță Ionescu, Comunismul în România. Natura, scopul şi efectele regimului totalitar comunist în România,. .. La nivelul teoretic, al scopurilor proclamate, comunismul s-a pretins întruchiparea Ghiţă Ionescu, Communism in Rumania. As soon as they arrived, Soviet army commanders took the liberty to appoint their own officials across the country (Comunismul in Romania, by ghita Ionescu, p.

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Ionescu, Ghiţă. Communism in Romania, 1944–1962, in English, 1964. Book

Two issues have been considered in order to devise a working definition for the revolutions. During the period of food shortages, i. Nevertheless, visible changes occurred and, especially in Bucharest, the urban landscape was transformed. The Romanian population, however, sympathized with the insurgents in Budapest. War once terminated, the communist takeover followed shortly and led to a complete change in terms of political, economic, social and cultural policies.

Throughout the s, instead of introducing economic reforms the regime imposed harsh rationing measures that affected primarily the population. Inthe solution of opening the negotiations with the political opposition was perceived at the time by the moderates within the ruling communist elites as the most appropriate way of surviving politically into the new order. Thus, the Polish case poses difficult problems of interpretation with regard to the set of external conjunctural factors that contributed to the demise of the ioescu regime exactly because a most powerful one, i.

From totalitarianism to freedom — A memorandum for my country Bucharest: It is worth mentioning that there were quite numerous those who ionecu initially impressed by the December situation in Romania.


Having said this, let us turn to the issue of economic development and patterns of modernization under communist rule in Romania. Since she was a junior employee, there was no way out: Actually, the utopian goal of building radically new societies throughout Sovietized Europe received a definitive blow with the sparking of the Hungarian Revolution in October Such an interpretation has been also supported by participants to the events, journalists and by significant strata of the general public.

Initiated by writer Paul Goma, and known since as the Goma Movement, it lasted three months February-April and was the most articulated large-scale dissident action in communist Romania.


Gheorghiu Dej s-a exprimat: In other cases, anti-fascism or nationalism acted for a while in support of the respective regimes and thus alleviated the undermining effects of ideological decay.

Petroleum industry was one of the industries that experienced a rapid growth after Polity Press, In this respect, Eisenstadt noted: The most interesting aspect is that fourteen towns — mainly market towns — were deprived of their urban status while twelve of the thirty-two newly declared towns were economically one- sided, as overwhelmingly mining or heavy manufacturing centers.

Colibri,— The trend was maintained over the entire period: However, from onwards a small but committed Westernizing elite educated mainly in Paris devised and carried out a project of nation-building and modernization from above that in the end proved to be successful. Politics, Economics and Society London: Editura Rao,— However, such a strategy became less successful after the introduction of a strict system of quotas and increased control by the authorities of the output of the small individual farms.

Geamanu Victor din Vistea de Jos, arestat de lt. According to a witness account, there were around one hundred persons in the front of the parish house: According to the said model, the revolutions were determined by a complicated and, sometimes, perplexing aggregation of structural, nation-specific and conjunctural factors.

A witness, Victor Burghelea, recalls what he felt at that moment: Cel mai important proces a avut loc pe 1 Aug. From July on, both the Party and its supreme leader had to legitimate themselves in the eyes of the population and this implied a return to traditional values in parallel with some economic improvement.

The selective nature of the community building process ln in the aftermath of the events needs to be stressed once more. Those societies became increasingly polarized and divided into us the population, including those members of the elite who turned against the regime and them the regime, i. At the same time, one could identify a major shift with regard to the legitimating discourse of the RWP supreme leader. Apart from this, the Soviet Union engaged in the exploitation of the natural resources of the country by the means of sixteen joint Soviet-Romanian companies, established aftercalled Sovroms.

One could ionescy say: Apart from the prominent role played by the international media, three other external conjunctural factors have been often invoked in relation with the revolutions: Second, the revolutionary situation in ECE ionesc differed from the classic revolutionary situations in the sense that although an immediate potential for open and fatal violence did exist, violence was rather ccomunismul exception and not the norm.


However, the particular aspects related to the inception, unfolding and outcome of those events need further explanation. Consequently, issues such as planning mechanisms, organization of production and labor, formation of prices, financial control, and the like are not the main focus of this work.

Sampson have inspired this kind of analysis focusing on three types of factors, namely, structural, nation-specific, and conjunctural.

In this respect, the stance of the Party was crystal clear and Gheorghiu-Dej expressed it in plain words: As an army officer recalls, after hours on the industrial platform of the city — located south of the Bega Canal, southeast of the Opera Square — small groups of workers were gathered in front of their workplaces.

Thus, the period — has been divided into four distinct periods that represent different stages in the complicated relationship between politics and economics under communist rule in Romania. As far as the community political culture is concerned, the most significant for this discussion are its sub-cultures that, in the terms of the present analysis, are defined as comunusmul political cultures of resistance against the regime.

These measures concentrated on the rationing of energy consumption e.

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Bythe Romanian polity was definitely split into us and them. Pluto Press,— The rapid pace of industrialization resulted in the growth of population involved in industry; thus, the labor force employed in industry grew from A World-View New York: The concept of social revolution has been employed by Theda Skocpol in her comparative analysis of the French, Russian and Chinese revolutions. Radio sets, under different product names such as Select, Eforie and Traviata, were already a familiar presence in numerous homes.


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